Old Testament Articles

  Please click here for this website's most important article: Why the Bible Cannot be the Word of God.
Sabbath Origins and the Epic of Gilgamesh
Abraham_NOT_the Father of Ishmael and the Arabs?
Eden's Serpent and its Pre-biblical Mesopotamian Prototypes
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Sennacherib vs. Hezekiah 
(The Untold "Rest of the Story" From the Assyrian Archives)
Ezekiel, A Late Hellenistic Composition or Redaction?
Genesis' Genesis, 
The Hebrew Transformation of the Ancient Near Eastern Myths and Their Motifs.
Unraveling the Japheth Mystery (Genesis 9:25-27)
Dating the Exodus, The Hyksos Expulsion of 1540 BCE?
EXODUS PROBLEMS: Scholarly Pitfalls encountered in setting a Date for the Exodus
and establishing its route on maps
Egypt's Hebrew/Habiru/Aperu "Slaves" and their "Covenantal" Conquest of Canaan
The Primary History (Genesis-2 Kings), The Case for a Single Author
(And Observations on The Craft of Ancient History Writing)
The Origins of Israel's Monotheistic Concept of God 
(Arising from Effusive Praise of the Deity)
The Sabbath/Shabbat  and its "alleged" Derivation from the Lunar Shapattu Festival 
Wrathful Gods and the "Day of the Lord"  (Isaiah 13:9-16)
(The Ancient Near Eastern Motifs and Parallels)
The Non-Egyptian Origins of Israel's Golden Calf Worship (Yahweh is the Golden Calf ?)
Fiery Gods: Yahweh, Marduk, Asshur, the Queen of Heaven, Ahura-Mazdah, et. al.
The Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil and the Tree of Life
in the Garden of Eden (The Ancient Near Eastern Motifs behind)

Eden's Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil was a Fig Tree and the Tree of Life was a Date Palm? 
Yahweh of Samaria and His Asherah (Kuntillet `Ajrud)
Yahweh is Egeliah, "The Bull-calf of Yah",
alias, "The Golden Calf" ?)

Yahweh-Elohim's Historical Evolution (Pre-Biblical)
Dating Biblical Texts via Failed Prophecies
Cherubim, The Pre-Biblical Origins of 
(And The Mercy Seat Atop the Ark of the Covenant)
Exodus Memories of Southern Sinai 
(Linking the Archaeological Data to the Biblical Narratives)
The Primary History (Genesis-2 Kings), An Exilic Composition of  March-August 560 BCE?
Balaam's Kittim Oracle (560 BCE?)
The Decalogue, a  2nd or 1st Millennium BCE Creation?
Identifying Genesis' Mid-First Millennium BCE  Origins via Onomastic Research on Cain and Nimrod
The Failed Prophecies Concerning Babylon made by Isaiah and Jeremiah 
Dating the Pentateuch via Hebrew as a Language
The Exodus'  "Poisonous Quail" of Kibroth-hatta-avah (Nu 11:31-35)
Determining Truth: Bible Contradictions and Textual Criticism
(The Septuagint vs. the Massoretic Text)
Israel's  IRON IA  "Aramaean" Origins (The Archaeological Evidence For)
Many of these articles, from an Anthropological viewpoint, and employing the findings of Archaeology, seek to identify the origins of concepts and motifs found in the Old Testament. 

Evaluating Internet Research Sources by Robert Harris should be read by everyone, click here.
Prophets contradicting Prophets (Isaiah vs. Jeremiah vs. Ezekiel vs. Daniel)
The Manna of the Sinai Wilderness
A Critique of the Primary History, Genesis-Kings being a Hellenistic Creation of the Hasmoneans
The Egyptian Origins of Israel's Golden Calf Worship in the Sinai
Dating the Exodus (Josephus' Hyksos Expulsion vs. Manetho's Ramesside Expulsion)

The Pre-biblical Origins of the Asherah and the Asherim 
(as Egyptian Pillar Gods and Goddesses Fused to Semitic Deities in Late Bronze Age Times (1560-1200 BCE).
The Midianites and the Amalekites and the Exodus Wanderings
(The Archaeolgical Evidence Behind the Biblical Traditions)

Late Bronze Age Gods of the Resurrection:
Osiris, El, Baal, Anat and Yahweh-Elohim

Genesis' Literary Borrowing, Adam and Eve and Their Prototypes, Enkidu, Gilgamesh and the Temple Courtesan Samhat from the Epic of Gilgamesh
Why a "naked" Adam in Eden?
Yahweh-Elohim (Jesus Christ) "The Fornicator God" who became _spiritually_ a "Eunuch God" 

Is the Bible "Inerrant" or "Errant"?
(The Problem of Textual Criticism)

The Exodus' Passover plague was a " Spring Plague," a periodically reoccurring Egyptian phenomenon?
Why Israel could not distinguish false from real prophets
Noah's Flood, the Archaeological and Geological evidence for its 
3rd Millennium BC occurrence (Including pictures of Noah's Ark)
Parallels Between "The Fall" of Adapa in the Adapa and the Southwind Mythand "The Fall" of Adam in Genesis 3:1-24

Daniel's Failed Prophecies
Why the Bible cannot be the Word of God
Parallels Between Adam and Enkidu, Eve and Shamhat In the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Garden of Eden
The Pre-biblical Protagonist Behind Genesis' Eve: Shamhat of the Epic of Gilgamesh 
The Quran (Koran) and the Holy Bible as Promoters of Islamic, Jewish and Christian Terrorism Towards non-Moslems, non-Jews and non-Christians
Man's Fall From Innocence: Adam, Adapa and Enkidu
A brief history and Critique of the Academic search (1859-2008) for the pre-biblical origins of the Serpent in the Garden of Eden from parallels appearing in Ancient Near Eastern Myths.